Nanodiamonds

Diamonds Are a Tooth's Best Friend

November 30th, 2015

 

We've heard that diamonds are a girl's best friend. But what if I told you that diamonds can also be a tooth's best friend? In an article in last month's edition of ACS Nano, bioengineer Dr. Dean Ho from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry suggests that diamond is an ideal substance for  root-canal treatment, the deepest type of filling for dental cavities.

Root-canal therapy penetrates the bottom of the tooth and is required for bacterial infections that have passed through both the enamel and dentin layer underneath to the pulp of the tooth's center that is rich in nutrients and contains nerves. This type of filling is difficult to execute, complicated, and often painful. It is also sometimes ineffective in preventing the infection from returning, because either the hole created when the pulp is removed may not be fully cleaned or the gum used to fill the hole, gutta percha, is not an effective enough seal to prevent bacteria from reaching inside again.

Dr. Ho explains how the properties of nanodiamonds, diamonds that are 4-6 nanometers across, make nanodiamonds the optimal substance to be mixed into gutta percha. These diamonds have the shape of  octahedrons with sharp edges. Their geometry allows them to penetrate and stick to the surfaces of the teeth. Furthermore, their facets are coated with amines, carboxyls, and hydroxyls, which are ideal for keeping antibiotic molecules in place. On the other hand, when antibiotics are incorporated in pure gutta percha, they quickly move away from the material, which allows the plug to be vulnerable to the colonization of bacteria. Another excellent property of diamonds is that with the exception of their surface groups, they are crystals of pure carbon. This abundance of carbon makes these diamonds resistant to the mouth's harsh chemical environment. Finally, these diamonds are also economically feasible, because they are inexpensive. Traditional mining and refining create them as byproducts.

In order to test how effective this idea is, researchers left a mixture of nanodiamonds and the common antibiotic amoxycillin at room temperature for five to seven days. By this time, the antibiotic would have been able to stick to the diamonds. After adding the nanodiamonds to a portion of gutta percha, researchers shook the product with sound waves. They tested the flexibility, elasticity, ability to withstand stresses, and rate of antibiotic leakage of  the new material. The scientists discovered that it was about three times stronger in all aspects than that of gutta percha by itself.

Because of these positive results, scientists expect that in two years, there will be clinical trials on patients that use diamonds in root-canal treatments.

Feel free to contact Drs. Ali & Ali and the caring team at Wellesley Dental Group if you have any thoughts or concerns; they will be happy to answer your questions! Contact us today at 781-237-9071 or smile@wellesleydentalgroup.com to set up an appointment and consultation.

Your little ones and teens are welcome to visit our pediatric dentist Dr. VanDr. Emad is happy to help with your orthodontic needs. For wisdom teeth extractions or any other oral surgery needs Dr. Ghazi would be more than willing to help.

Resources:

http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21677190-adding-tiny-gems-may-make-root-canal-treatment-more-effective-tooth-fairy-dust

http://www.azonano.com/images/Article_Images/ImageForArticle_3629(1).jpg

 

Is the Future of Dental Implants Found In Diamonds or Titanium?

October 25th, 2013

 

 

diamond

 

It may be strange to think that a precious jewel can aid in the field of dentistry. Researchers at UCLA have been looking into diamonds and if they do have a place in creating better dental implants for patients. These researchers are focusing on nanodiamonds, which are made through conventional mining and refining operations and are definitely called “nano” for a reason; they come out to be approximately four to five nanometers in diameters, resembling miniature soccer balls. The UCLA researchers enlisted the help of the UCLA School of Dentistry, the UCLA Department of Bioengineering, Northwestern University, and even the NanoCarbon Research Institute in Japan to help come up with innovative ways to implement these nanodiamonds in dentistry. Their research has led them to believe that these nanodiamonds can improve bone growth and has the potential to counteract osteonecrosis, a disease marked by bone breakdown due to reduce blood flow.

 

Osteonecrosis can affect various parts of the body, but when this disease affects the joints in the jaw, it can keep people from eating and speaking properly, even restricting or impeding movement. What makes matters worse is that when osteonecrosis occurs near implants, including teeth or prosthetic joints, these implants loosen and can eventually fall out. These dental implant failures lead to additional procedures, which can not only be painful, but can also become very expensive.

 

These issues surrounding dental implants led the team at UCLA to conduct a study that would reveal whether nanodiamonds would be a viable solution. Conducted by Dr. Dean Ho, a professor of oral biology and medicine at the UCLA School of Dentistry, and his team used the nonadiamonds to deliver proteins responsible for bone growth. Their results indicated that nanodiamonds have the uncanny ability to bind rapidly the essential proteins and growth factors. The surface properties of these diamonds allow for a slower delivery of these proteins, which researchers believe contribute to a longer period of treatment of the affected area in the oral cavity. What’s more is that these nanodiamonds can be inserted in to patients in a non-invasive way, through either an injection or an oral rinsing.

 

Nanodiamonds are not only the technology that researchers are pursuing to improve. On the other side of the world, researchers in Japan and China have been revisiting the essential components of titanium, which contains alloys that are very commonly used in orthopedic implants. Because of its reliable mechanical and chemical properties, along with its biocompatible and corrosion resistant nature, titanium has been the go-to product to use in dental implant procedures. However, one of the drawbacks that titanium faces is its lack of ability to bond directly to living bone. Researchers have found that calcium phosphate (CaP) and collagen are main components of natural bone; these scientists believe that a composite of both of these components can be used to effectively coat titanium implants. The study they published in the journal of Science and Technology of Advanced Material showed that when titanium implants were coated with CaP gel and inserted into the thigh bone of rabbit, within four and eight weeks, the authors noticed that there was significantly more new bone on the surface of the titanium implants that had been covered with the CaP gel. These coated implants were also able to bond directly to the bone, without needing an intervening soft tissue layer. The researchers believe that this innovative CaP and collagen composite can play an important role in improving dental implants.

 

Both results found for nanodiamonds and titanium prove to be exciting news in field of Periodonistry and even in the medical world as a whole. These nanodiamonds may possibly revolutionize dental implants, allowing them to be longer lasting and effective, while this the new CaP and collagen coating and greatly improve the use of titanium. Feel free to contact Drs. Ali & Ali and the caring team at Wellesley Dental Group if you have any thoughts or concerns; they will be happy to answer your questions! Contact us today at 781-237-9071 or smile@wellesleydentalgroup.com

 

References:

 

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130918102002.htm

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131003142214.htm

http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/nanodiamond-encrusted-teeth-248066.aspx

http://news.sciencemag.org/health/2011/03/nanodiamonds-could-be-cancer-patients-best-friend

http://www.abcnetspace.com/2013/08/how-diamonds-are-shaping-technology.html to read more about Diamond Technology!

 

 

 

 

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